Key to tribes of Compositae in Bolivia


Corolla inside and outside and all other floral parts bearing simple, uniseriate, eglandular, 3-celled hairs; plants often with axillary spines or thorns


Corollas and other floral parts lacking such hairs but often with hairs of other kinds, or glabrous; stems lacking spines or thorns, or if stems apparently spiny these formed from branch and branchlet apices


2. (1)

Corollas all ligulate (i.e. all strap-shaped, equally 5-toothed at apex)


Corollas not ligulate, or if strap-shaped then limb with 4 or less apical teeth, or teeth unequal


3. (2)

Plants lacking latex; style arms lacking collector hairs

Mutisieae p.p. (Hyaloseris)

Plants with latex; style arms subulate, pubescent outside and to below bifurcation on style shaft


4. (2)

Phyllaries uniseriate, usually cohering by overlapping margins, or partly or wholly connate, calyculate or ecalyculate; pappus present


Phyllaries imbricate in 2 or more series, free or connate, if uniseriate then not cohering or pappus absent or capitula unisexual


5. (4)

Plants with oil glands on leaves and phyllaries; achenes black when mature

Heliantheae p.p.

Plants lacking oil glands; achenes never black when mature

Senecioneae p.p.

6. (4)

Style arms bifurcate or short-bifid, pilose outside; upper part of style shaft pilose


Style arms bifurcate or bilobed, rarely connate, not pilose outside; upper part of style glabrous or sometimes with a ring of hairs just beneath style arm division


7. (6)

Florets isomorphic, all hermaphrodite; corolla tubular, usually long lobed


Florets dimorphic, outer florets female with filiform corollas or with rays, disc florets tubular, hermaphrodite or male; corolla lobes short


8. (7)

Outer florets filiform; leaves alternate; plants never with latex

Inuleae p.p.

Outer florets rayed; leaves opposite (rarely rosettiform); plants with or without latex


9. (6)

Capitula with all or only outer florets bilabiate (i.e. corollas with 3-toothed outer lips and 2-lobed inner lips)

Mutisieae p.p.

Capitula lacking bilabiate florets, corollas all tubular or outer florets distinctly rayed, ray limb not bilabiate


10. (9)

Style with ring of hairs just beneath style arms

Cardueae (Carduus)

Style arms lacking ring of hairs and glabrous or variously papillate or pubescent


11. (10)

Anther bases not sagitate, base of thecae obtuse


Anther bases conspicuously sagitate, thecae long-acute or acuminate


12. (11)

Capitula with marginal filiform female florets; style arms truncate with a corona of hairs

Inuleae p.p.

Capitula with all florets tubular; style arms obtuse and lacking collector hairs

Mutisieae p.p.

13. (11)

Style arms long, linear or apically clavate, covered in short papillae beginning conspicuously above base of style arms (florets isomorphic, all hermaphrodite, tubular; corollas never yellow)


Style arms short, in upper part covered in collector hairs, rarely without collector hairs, or long [account for this if necessary] (florets isomorphic or dimorphic, hermaphrodite corollas usually yellow)


14. (13)

Style arms truncate or obtuse


Style arms subulate to triangular


15. (14)

Pappus of capillary setae; involucre calyculate

Senecioneae p.p. (Culcitium)

Pappus absent or a hyaline corona; involucre ecalyculate


16. (15)

Phyllaries with scarious, usually brown margins; achenes relatively small, monomorphic or sometimes dimorphic, pappus a lacerate crown or auricle, or absent; leaves often pinnatipartite


Phyllaries green and herbaceous; achenes relatively large, polymorphic, epappose; leaves entire or lobed

Calenduleae (Calendula)

17. (14)

Achene body never black, very frequently setuliferous, rarely glabrous; pappus usually of capillary barbellate setae, or absent, rarely of squamellae and then falling rapidly; leaves usually alternate, but never scabrid pubescent; receptacle usually epaleaceous


Achene body black, usually glabrous or sometimes setuliferous; pappus of scales, squamellae, aristae or awns, or absent, but never of capillary setae, or if setae present these plumose; leaves frequently opposite and scabrid pubescent; receptacle frequently paleaceous